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              Books by National Academies

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              Total 15 jump to: go ‹ previous12next ›
              Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future

              Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future (Trade Paperback / Paperback)

              By Research Council, National; Division on Earth and Life Studies; Board on Earth Sciences and Resources; Committee on the Importance of Deep-Time Geologic Records for Understanding Climate Change Impacts; Academies, National

              • RRP: $55.99
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              There is little dispute within the scientific community that humans are changing Earth's climate on a decadal to century time-scale. By the end of this century, without a reduction in emissions, atmospheric CO2 is projected to increase to levels that Earth has not experienced for... more than 30 million years. As greenhouse gas emissions propel Earth toward a warmer climate state, an improved understanding of climate dynamics in warm environments is needed to inform public policy decisions. In Understanding Earth's Deep Past, the National Research Council reports that rocks and sediments that are millions of years old hold clues to how the Earth's future climate would respond in an environment with high levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases. Understanding Earth's Deep Past provides an assessment of both the demonstrated and underdeveloped potential of the deep-time geologic record to inform us about the dynamics of the global climate system. The report describes past climate changes, and discusses potential impacts of high levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases on regional climates, water resources, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, and the cycling of life-sustaining elements. While revealing gaps in scientific knowledge of past climate states, the report highlights a range of high priority research issues with potential for major advances in the scientific understanding of climate processes. This proposed integrated, deep-time climate research program would study how climate responded over Earth's different climate states, examine how climate responds to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, and clarify the processes that lead to anomalously warm polar and tropical regions and the impact on marine and terrestrial life. In addition to outlining a research agenda, Understanding Earth's Deep Past proposes an implementation strategy that will be an invaluable resource to decision-makers in the field, as well as the research community, advocacy
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              ISBN 9780309209151
              Released NZ 15 Aug 2011
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              Technical Evaluation of the NASA Model for Cancer Risk to Astronauts Due to Space Radiation

              Technical Evaluation of the NASA Model for Cancer Risk to Astronauts Due to Space Radiation (Paperback)

              By Research Council, National; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; Studies Board, Space; Committee for Evaluation of Space Radiation Cancer Risk Model; Academies, National

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              NASA's current missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and potential future exploration missions involving extended stays by astronauts on the lunar surface, as well as the possibility of near- Earth object (NEO) or Mars missions, present challenges in protecting astron...auts from radiation risks. These risks arise from a number of sources, including solar particle events (SPEs), galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), secondary radiation from surface impacts, and even the nuclear isotope power sources transported with the astronauts. The serious early and late radiation health effects potentially posed by these exposures are equally varied, ranging from early signs of radiation sickness to cancer induction. Other possible effects include central nervous system damage, cataracts, cardiovascular damage, heritable effects, impaired wound healing, and infertility. Recent research, much of which has been sponsored by NASA, has focused on understanding and quantifying the radiation health risks posed by space radiation environments. Although many aspects of the space radiation environments are now relatively well characterized, important uncertainties still exist regarding biological effects and thus regarding the level and types of risks faced by astronauts. This report presents an evaluation of NASA's proposed space radiation cancer risk assessment model, which is described in the 2011 NASA report, Space Radiation Cancer Risk Projections and Uncertainties--2010. The evaluation in Technical Evaluation of the NASA Model for Cancer Risk to Astronauts Due to Space Radiation considers the model components, input data (for the radiation types, estimated doses, and epidemiology), and the associated uncertainties. This report also identifies gaps in NASA's current research strategy for reducing the uncertainties in cancer induction risks.
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              ISBN 9780309253055
              Released NZ 15 Dec 2012
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              Managing for High-Quality Science and Engineering at the NNSA National Security Laboratories

              Managing for High-Quality Science and Engineering at the NNSA National Security Laboratories (Paperback)

              By Research Council, National; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; Assessments Board, Laboratory; Committee to Review the Quality of the Management and of the Science and Engineering Research at the Department of Energy's National Security Laboratoriesa Phase I; Academies, National

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              The three National Security Laboratories--Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)--are managed by private-sector entities under contract to the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). Th...e FY2010 Defense Authorization Act mandated that NNSA task the National Research Council (NRC) to study the quality and management of Science and Engineering (S&E) at these Laboratories. This study (addressing a total of 5 tasks) is being conducted in two phases. This report covers the first phase, which addresses the relationship between the quality of the science and engineering at the Laboratory and the contract for managing and operating the Laboratory (task 4), and also addresses the management of work conducted by the Laboratory for entities other than the Department of Energy (task 5). The study's second phase will evaluate the actual quality of S&E in key subject areas. Managing for High-Quality Science and Engineering at the NNSA National Security Laboratories presents assessments of the evolution of the mission of the NNSA Labs and the management and performance of research in support of the missions, and the relationship between the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program and the ability of the Labs to fulfill their mission. The report examines the framework for managing science and engineering research at the Labs and provides an analysis of the relationships among the several players in the management of the Labs--the NNSA, the site offices, the contractors, and the Lab managers--and the effect of that relationship on the Laboratories' ability to carry out science and engineering research.
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              ISBN 9780309254373
              Released NZ 15 Dec 2012
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              Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative

              Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative (Trade Paperback / Paperback)

              By Academies, National; Policy and Global Affairs; Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy; Committee on Increasing National Resilience to Hazards and Disasters

              • RRP: $79.00
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              No person or place is immune from disasters or disaster-related losses. Infectious disease outbreaks, acts of terrorism, social unrest, or financial disasters in addition to natural hazards can all lead to large-scale consequences for the nation and its communities. Communities a...nd the nation thus face difficult fiscal, social, cultural, and environmental choices about the best ways to ensure basic security and quality of life against hazards, deliberate attacks, and disasters. Beyond the unquantifiable costs of injury and loss of life from disasters, statistics for 2011 alone indicate economic damages from natural disasters in the United States exceeded $55 billion, with 14 events costing more than a billion dollars in damages each. One way to reduce the impacts of disasters on the nation and its communities is to invest in enhancing resilience--the ability to prepare and plan for, absorb, recover from and more successfully adapt to adverse events. Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative addresses the broad issue of increasing the nation's resilience to disasters. This book defines national resilience , describes the state of knowledge about resilience to hazards and disasters, and frames the main issues related to increasing resilience in the United States. It also provide goals, baseline conditions, or performance metrics for national resilience and outlines additional information, data, gaps, and/or obstacles that need to be addressed to increase the nation's resilience to disasters. Additionally, the book's authoring committee makes recommendations about the necessary approaches to elevate national resilience to disasters in the United States. Enhanced resilience allows better anticipation of disasters and better planning to reduce disaster losses-rather than waiting for an event to occur and paying for it afterward. Disaster Resilience confronts the topic of how to increase the nation's resilience to disasters through a vision of the characteristics of a re
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              ISBN 9780309261500
              Released NZ 15 Nov 2012
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              The National Weather Service Modernization and Associated Restructuring: A Retrospective Assessment

              The National Weather Service Modernization and Associated Restructuring: A Retrospective Assessment (Paperback)

              By Committee on the Assessment of the National Weather Service's Modernization Program; Research Council, National; Board on Atmospheric Sciences & Climate; Division on Earth and Life Studies; Academies, National

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              The Modernization and Associated Restructuring (MAR) of the National Weather Service (NWS) was a large and complex re-engineering of a federal agency. The process lasted a decade and cost an estimated 4.5 billion [dollars]. The result was greater integration of science into weath...er service activities and improved outreach and coordination with users of weather information. The MAR created a new, modernized NWS, and, significantly, it created a framework that will allow the NWS to keep up with technological changes in a more evolutionary manner. The MAR was both necessary and generally well executed. However, it required revolutionary, often difficult, changes. The procurement of large, complex technical systems presented challenges in and of itself. The MAR also affected the career paths and personal lives of a large portion of the field office workforce. The MAR created a new, modernized NWS, and, significantly, it created a framework that will allow the NWS to keep up with technological changes in a more evolutionary manner. The National Weather Service modernization and associated restructuring presents the first comprehensive assessment of the execution of the MAR and its impact on the provision of weather services in the United States. This report provides an assessment that addresses the past modernization as well as lessons learned to support future improvements to NWS capabilities --Publisher's description.
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              ISBN 9780309217989
              Released NZ 15 Jan 2012
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              Science, Evolution, and Creationism

              Science, Evolution, and Creationism (Paperback)

              By Institute of Medicine; Academy of Sciences, National; Committee on Revising Science and Creationism: A View from the National Academy of Sciences; Academies, National

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              How did life evolve on Earth? The answer to this question can help us understand our past and prepare for our future. This work explores the many inquiries being pursued that put the science of evolution to work in preventing and treating human disease, developing new agricultura...l products, and fostering industrial innovations.
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              ISBN 9780309105866
              Released NZ 15 Jan 2008
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              Report of a Workshop on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Workforce Needs for the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Defense Industrial Base

              Report of a Workshop on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Workforce Needs for the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Defense Industrial Base (Paperback)

              By Committee on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Workforce Needs for the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Defense Industrial Base; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; Academy of Engineering, National; Research Council, National; Academies, National

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              Report of a Workshop on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Workforce Needs for the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Defense Industrial Base is the summary of a workshop held August 11, 2011, as part of an 18-month study of the issue. This book assesse...s the STEM capabilities that the Department of Defense (DOD) needs in order to meet its goals, objectives, and priorities; to assess whether the current DOD workforce and strategy will meet those needs; and to identify and evaluate options and recommend strategies that the department could use to help meet its future STEM needs. --Publisher's description.
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              ISBN 9780309251808
              Released NZ 15 Dec 2012
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              The National Academies Keck Futures Initiative: Complex Systems: Task Group Summaries

              The National Academies Keck Futures Initiative: Complex Systems: Task Group Summaries (Trade Paperback / Paperback)

              By The National Academies Keck Futures Initiatives; Academies, National

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              National Academies Keck Futures Initiative Conference on Complex Systems --T.p. verso.

              ISBN 9780309137256
              Released NZ 15 Jul 2010
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              Recapturing NASA's Aeronautics Flight Research Capabilities

              Recapturing NASA's Aeronautics Flight Research Capabilities (Paperback)

              By Research Council, National; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board; Committee to Assess NASA's Aeronautics Flight Research Capabilities; Academies, National

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              'In the five decades since NASA was created, the agency has sustained its legacy from the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) in playing a major role in U.S. aeronautics research and has contributed substantially to United States preeminence in civil and military av...iation. This preeminence has contributed significantly to the overall economy and balance of trade of the United States through the sales of aircraft throughout the world. NASA's contributions have included advanced flight control systems, de-icing devices, thrust-vectoring systems, wing fuselage drag reduction configurations, aircraft noise reduction, advanced transonic airfoil and winglet designs, and flight systems. Each of these contributions was successfully demonstrated through NASA flight research programs. Equally important, the aircraft industry would not have adopted these and similar advances without NASA flight demonstration on full-scale aircraft flying in an environment identical to that which the aircraft are to operate-in other words, flight research. Flight research is a tool, not a conclusion. It often informs simulation and modeling and wind tunnel testing. Aeronautics research does not follow a linear path from simulation to wind tunnels to flying an aircraft. The loss of flight research capabilities at NASA has therefore hindered the agency's ability to make progress throughout its aeronautics program by removing a primary tool for research. Recapturing NASA's Aeronautics Flight Research Capabilities discusses the motivation for NASA to pursue flight research, addressing the aspects of the committee's task such as identifying the challenges where research program success can be achieved most effectively through flight research. The report contains three case studies chosen to illustrate the state of NASA ARMD. These include the ERA program and the Fundamental Research Program's hypersonics and supersonics projects. Following these case studies, the report describes issue
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              ISBN 9780309255387
              Released NZ 15 Dec 2012
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              NASA Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities: Restoring NASA's Technological Edge and Paving the Way for a New Era in Space

              NASA Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities: Restoring NASA's Technological Edge and Paving the Way for a New Era in Space (Paperback)

              By Research Council, National; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board; Steering Committee for NASA Technology Roadmaps; Academies, National

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              NASA's Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) has begun to rebuild the advanced space technology program in the agency with plans laid out in 14 draft technology roadmaps. It has been years since NASA has had a vigorous, broad-based program in advanced space technology developmen...t and its technology base has been largely depleted. However, success in executing future NASA space missions will depend on advanced technology developments that should already be underway. Reaching out to involve the external technical community, the National Research Council (NRC) considered the 14 draft technology roadmaps prepared by OCT and ranked the top technical challenges and highest priority technologies that NASA should emphasize in the next 5 years. This report provides specific guidance and recommendations on how the effectiveness of the technology development program managed by OCT can be enhanced in the face of scarce resources.
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              ISBN 9780309253628
              Released NZ 15 Dec 2012
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              Total 15 jump to: go ‹ previous12next ›